Track-1 : Obesity: Diet and Nutrition
Obesity is a condition that is characterized by excessive body fat which leads to many health problems. The problem is not the body weight alone. Obese people are more prone to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, stroke, dementia as compared to their lean or healthy counterparts.
A healthy and balanced diet is not just a key to optimum weight but for a healthy and disease free lifestyle. A good diet must be complemented with a good fitness routine. As far as diet is concerned, one should definitely steer clear of all sources of trans-fat to begin with and make him/her a diet chart, and resolve to stick to it. The importance of nutrition and balanced diet in prevention and treatment of obesity has gained much attention in this era.
Track-2 : Obesity and Diabetes
Being overweight or obese increases the chances of developing the common type of diabetes like type 2 diabetes, which is also known as insulin-resistant or adult-onset diabetes. This is a condition where the blood glucose level is persistently higher than the normal. Insulin allows the cells to use glucose for energy. When one is resistant to insulin, the body is unable to convert the glucose into energy and the person is end up with a persistently high blood glucose level which leads to diabetes
Track-3 : Obesity and Cancer
Higher amounts of body fat are associated with increased risks of a number of cancers like Esophageal adenocarcinoma, Gastric cardiac cancer, Liver cancer, Multiple myeloma, Meningioma, Pancreatic cancer, Colorectal cancer, Gallbladder cancer etc. Obese people often have chronic low-level inflammation, which can, over time leads to DNA damage that leads to cancer. Overweight & obese individuals are more expected than normal-weight individuals to have conditions that are linked to cause chronic local inflammation which is risk factors for certain cancers. Fat tissue produces excess amounts of estrogens, high levels of which have been associated with increased risks of breast, endometrial, ovarian, and some other cancers. High levels of insulin & IGF-1 may promote the development of colon, kidney, prostate, and endometrial cancers.
Track-4 : Endocrinology and Cholesterol Metabolism
Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine system, its function, and associated diseases. The endocrine system can be defined as the organs in the body which release hormones that regulate many of the body’s functions, like testes, ovaries, pancreas, pituitary gland, the thyroid gland.
Cholesterol absorption is decreased and the cholesterol biosynthesis is increased in diabetes. The increased cholesterol synthesis can be reduced by insulin. Low cholesterol absorption efficiency has been reported earlier in a limited number of diabetic subjects with mild hyperlipidemia and in moderately overweight. In type 2 diabetes, in obesity and in conditions such as cortisol excess, raised insulin levels are frequently found. Insulin resistance is often associated. Lack of insulin can lower the level of "good" cholesterol. When insulin is given and well controlled, HDL numbers gradually go back to normal.
Track-5 : Childhood Obesity and Diabetes
Childhood Obesity is one of the most genuine general wellbeing difficulties of the 21st century. The issue is worldwide and is steadily affecting some low-and middle-income countries. The predominance has expanded at a disturbing rate. Internationally, in 2018 the number of overweight children less than five years old is assessed to be more than 54 million.
Overweight and obese kids are probably going to remain hefty into adulthood and more probable to create non-communicable illnesses like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a more youthful age. Overweight and obesity, and in addition their related diseases, are generally preventable. Anticipation of childhood obesity accordingly needs high need
Track-6 : Obesity and Weight Management
The entire world is becoming overweight. Most people are motivated to try to lose weight for cosmetic reasons. Weight loss can decrease health risk factors and possibly develop prognosis. Weight loss can be difficult in people who are trying to stop smoking, as they tend to gain weight. Many weight loss systems are available and are not affordable. Athletes who are obese and fit must lose weight after retirement or suffer the consequences related to risk factors. Bariatric surgery seems to be the best way for morbidly obese patients to lose weight. Weight-loss medications works in most patients who also comply with lifestyle changes, but these drugs have a number of side-effects.
Track-7 : Cholesterol and Lipid Metabolism
Cholesterol is an important lipid for mammalian cells and its homeostasis is tightly regulated. Disturbance of cellular cholesterol homeostasis is linked to many cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. A central role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is attributed to the endoplasmic reticulum. After ingested lipids are cleaved by enzymes, they are absorbed in the small intestine and transported via the lymphatic system into the bloodstream. These hydrophilic apolipoproteins control fat metabolism and have different proportions of bound fat as well as different functions. Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis; however, an increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has a positive effect on the vessels
Track-8 : Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome: Stroke and Cardiac Health
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that occur together, increasing the risk of stroke, type 2 diabetes and heart diseases. These conditions include increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and triglyceride levels or abnormal cholesterol.
Heart disease and heart attack: When the arteries that supplies blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked by fatty deposits known as plaque, they decrease the amount of blood and oxygen reaching the heart, which can cause chest pain or a heart attack.
Type 2 diabetes: Diabetes occurs when the body can no longer make sufficient insulin or is unable to use insulin appropriately. This causes sugars to build up in the blood and increases risks for cardiovascular disease and kidney failure.
Track-9 : Obesity, Diabetes and Pregnancy: Risks and Management
Maternal obesity is currently considered one of the most commonly occurring risk factors seen in obstetric practices. Compared with women with a healthy pre-pregnancy weight and women with obesity are at increased risk of miscarriage, induced labour, gestational diabetes, anaesthetic complications, preeclampsia, venous thromboembolism, caesarean section, wound infections, and they are less likely to initiate or maintain breastfeeding. Babies of obese mothers are at increased risk of stillbirth, prematurity, congenital anomalies, macrosomia and neonatal death.
Track-10 : Bariatric Surgery and Advanced Treatments of Diabetes
Common treatments for obesity and overweight include losing weight through diet, healthy eating, being physically active and making other changes to our usual habits. Some people who have obesity are unable to lose sufficient weight to improve their health or are unable to keep from regaining weight. In such cases, a doctor may consider adding other treatments like bariatric surgery, including weight-loss medicines, weight-loss devices. Bariatric surgery may be a best option if we have extreme obesity and haven’t been able to lose enough weight to improve our health or keep from gaining back the weight we lost with other treatments